Genghis Khan
and the Making of the Modern World

He said: I Love Mongolia

by Jack Weatherford Weatherford@macalester.edu



http://www.chinggiscomplex.mn/academy.html
 



His Bestseller book about Mongolia and Genghis Khan

http://www.isidore-of-seville.com/genghis/2.html


Genghis Khan and Mongolian soul son

 
Introduction to:
Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World

by Jack Weatherford

New York Times bestseller
Washington Area bestseller

Favorite book of Mongolians
Favorite book of Indian Prime Minister

Manmohan Singh, Indian Prime Minister
"There is very little time for reading in my new job. But of the few books I've read, my favourite is Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World by Jack Weatherford (Crown Publishers, New York). It's a fascinating
book portraying Genghis Khan in a totally new light. It shows that he was a great secular leader, among other things"
.

Outlook India Magazine  Dec 27, 2004
 
Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World

Jack Weatherford ni Minnesota mujiin Macalestar
Collegiin ugsaatnii zui, hun sudlaach professor bugeed
Indian Givers, Native roots, Savages and Civilization,
The history of MOney zereg nom bichjee. (Ene americ  erdemtenii mongol ner BiderBor)

1. Nomiin tovch tailbar. (In Mongolian) Introduction

Delhiin uls ornii hil hyazgaar, uls tur, gun uhaan,
technology, baildah urlag, hudaldaa, huvtsas, urlag,
uran zohiol, hel soyoliin hureend CHingis haan,
Mongoliin ih gurnii uldeesen nulee mash ih. Ene nomond
negen suu bilegt hun delhiin uchuuhen untsegees (bor
gerees)ehlen Delhiin ih gurniig baiguulj orchin uyeiin
tuuhend muree herhen uldeesen uneheeriin gaihamshigt
unen bodit tuuhiin talaar uguuleh bolno.
Chingis haan geheer l bidnii tarhind aluurchin, tsust
yargachin, irgenshsen hugjiltei niigmiig ustgasan
zerleg nuudelchin, moritonii tuhai tuseeldeg. Gevch
unendee bol Chingis khan Aziin soyoliig Europiin
soyoltoi holbon ugch ul tuseelegdem shine technologi,
hudaldaa, oyun sanaanii uriig tarij ugchee.
Chingisiin ongon nutgiig eren haih az tohioson
Professor Jack Weatherfordiin buteeld CHingis haanii
gaihamshit tuuhees, tuunii hojmiin zalgamjlagchid,
tednii baildan daguulal, delhiig herhen uurchilsen
talaar bichsen.
CHingis haan buslen tsohih, hurdtai dairalt,
baildaanii urlag, zevsegiig gaihamshigtaiaar uurchilen
huvsgaj, taliin nuudelchin Mongolchuud Aziig ezelj,
Islamiin yertentsiig muheej, Europiig donsolgoj
chadjee.
100000 tseregees hezee ch hetreegui CHingis haanii
udirdsan Mongoliin tsuuhen tseregt armi Romiin ezent
gurnii 400 jil bolj ezelsen gazar nutag uls ornoos ch
iluu ihiig yerdee 25 han jild ezeljee.
Sibirees Enetheg, Vietnamaas Ungar, SOlongosoos Balkan
hurtelh augaa uudam nutgiig ezelsen Mongoliin ih guren
delhiin gazar zurgiig ahin shineer uildej, salangi
tusgaar haant ulsuuddig negen shine yertentsed
argamjij chadsan tuhai uguulsen.
Zohiolch tsaash ni Mongolchuud baildan daguulaliin
masteruud tudiigui ezent gurnee togtoon barihdaa
uhaalag, tasraltgui bodlogo yavuulsan suu bilegtnuud
baiv gejee. Yamar ch untsegees harsan CHingis haaniig
hemjih hemjuur ni tuuniig hiij buteesen zuil bolno.
CHingis haan tsoo shineer setgegch udirdagch, huchtei
zahirgaa huuliin dor mash olon gurniig zangidsan
anhnii hosgui  udirdagch bugeed shashnii erh chulee,
surguuli soyoliig uusgeh, diplomot yosiig togtoon, hun
ardiig erh chuleetei bolgon, hudaldaanii shine zamiig
neesen. TUunii buteesen hudaldaanii zam ni ashigtai
zah zeeliig buteen, shine technologi, shine mergeshil,
shine sanaag ugsen.
Mongolchuud delhin tuuhend anh udaa tsaasan mungiig,
shuudangiin uilchilgeeg anh nevtruulj, nom hevleh,
uher buu, luujin g.m technologiin huvisaliig hiisen.
MOngolchuud undesniii hool hunsee hereglen, huvtsas,
umdiig heregleh soyoliig delhiid taraasan. Mongolchuud
delhiin tuuhiin gol tsag hugastaand amidraliin shine
zamiin uran barilgachid baijee.
Hargis hertsgii, bichig useggui hemeegdehees uur
tsolgui CHingis haan, nuudelchin Mongolchuudiin unen
tuuhiig Jack.Weatherford uneneer ni uudlan bichjee.
Guivuulsan unen tuuhiig zasan zalruulsan Unge gyalbaa
tsatsruulsan enehuu buteel ni augaa ih udirdagch,
tuunii aldar suu, tuunii egel daruuhan unen dur
turhiig haruulsan. Odogiin bidnii orchin tsagiig
herhen CHingis haan buteesniig dahin ergej shineer
harahiig Weatherfordiin buteel urialan duudaj baina.

Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World

Contents
The Mongol Dynasties
Introduction: The Missing Conqueror
Part I: The Reign of Terror on the Steppe: 1162-1206
Chapter 1: The Blood Cot
Chapter 2: Tale of Three Rivers
Chapter 3: War of the Khans
Part II: The Mongol World War: 1211 -1261
Chapter 4: Spitting on the Golden Khan
Chapter 5: Sultan versus Khan
Chapter 6: The Discovery and Conquest of Europe
Chapter 7: Warring Queens
Part III: The Global Awakening: 1262-1962
Chapter 8: Khubilai Khan and the New Mongol Empire
Chapter 9: The Global Awakening
Chapter 10: The Empire of Illusion
Epilogue: The Eternal Spirit of Genghis Khan
Notes
Glossary
Acknowledgements
About the Author

"The Mongols made culture portable. It was not enough to merely exchange goods, because whole systems of knowledge had also to be transported in order to use many of the new products. Drugs, for example, were not profitable items of trade unless there was adequate knowledge of how to use them. Toward this objective, the Mongol court imported Persian and Arab doctors into China, and they exported Chinese doctors to the Middle East. Every form of knowledge carried new possibilities for merchandising."

 

  2-r heseg
Jack. Weatherford. Genghis khan and the making the
modern world. Nomiin udirtgal.

Mongoliin zaluu uyeiihend zahih ni:
Amin Mongoliin tuuhiig hamgaalan uldeheer
Altan amia duraar zoliosloson
Augaa ih uhaant mergedee
Amid yavaa nasandaa hezee ch buu martaarai.
(Weatherford. Bidend surgamjtai zahias heljee)

Enehuu sur javhlant ezenii ner Chingis khan
Erin zuundaa tereer aldar suugaa manduulj
Ene delhiin haa ch tuunees uur
Egel buhnii shuteen ugui bailaa.
(Canterbury Tales,) Chaucer. c.1343

The King was called Genghis Khan,
Who in his time was of great renown
That there was nowhere in no region
So excellent a lord in all things



Mongoliin zaluu uyeiihend zahih ni:
Amin Mongoliin tuuhiig hamgaalan uldeheer
Altan amia duraar zoliosloson
Augaa ih uhaant mergedee
Amid yavaa nasandaa hezee ch buu martaarai.
(Weatherford. Bidend surgamjtai zahias heljee)

Enehuu sur javhlant ezenii ner Chingis khan
Erin zuundaa tereer aldar suugaa manduulj
Ene delhiin haa ch tuunees uur
Egel buhnii shuteen ugui bailaa.
(Yertentsiin eznii domog) Chaucer. c.1935

 

Orshil heseg:

Ereed olohgui Delhiig baildan daguulagch

1937 on. Olon zuunii turshid ezen CHingisee bishren
deedelj, hairlan hamgaalj irsen unen susegt lam nariin
nutag Shanhiin hiidees Saran goliin daguu CHingis
haanii sunh uzegdsengui. 1930 onii uyed Staliniig
tahin shutegchid  lam nariin soyol urlag, suseg
bishreliin esreg udaa daraa turemgiilel uilden
Mongoliin 30.000 lamiig alj huneesen. Eelj daraalan
sum hiidiig suitgen tonoj, lam nariig buudan alj,
gelenmaa nariig doromjilon huchirhiilj, nomiin san,
sudar nom, urlagiin buteeliig galdan shataajee.
Ezen CHingisiin sunsees avral ersen lam nariin ami
nasiig naidvartai hamgaalahaar Ulaanbaatart homoroglon
barivchilj avchirav. Gevch ted hezee ch ergen
irsengui...
Tuv Aziin gund zuunaas zuun damjuulan Munh tengeriin
huchin dor har, tsagaan suldet tsugaa deedlen irsen
taliin malchin baatruud. CHingis haan tsagaan morinii
suuleer hiisen tsagaan suldet tugaa enhiin tsagt
hereglej, har morinii suuleer hiisen har suldet tugaa
dain dajinii uyed hereglej irjee. Ezen CHingisiin
Tsagaan suldet tug tuuhiin urtad alga bolj, har suldet
tugaa Mongolchuud hamgaalan uldjee. 16-r zuund CHingis
haanii udam ugsaa under gegeen Zanabazar suldet tugaa
shiteh zorilgoor Shanhiin hiidiig baiguuljee. Ene
hiidiig zalgamjilan suusan olon lam nar aluulj har har
suldet tug ezengui bolov. \
Suldet tugaa hiih hojimoo delhiin taliig baildan
daguulah mongol morid ezen haand hangalttai baijee.
Balchir huu, hojmiin ih ezen CHingis baga nasandaa
doromjlol, yaduural, ushee avalt, murden mushgeltiin
dund usch, amidraliin uhel muheliin dund baga nasaa
ungereej hatuu hetsuu amidralaas yer busiin har
uhaaniig surchee.
Baga nasandaa duugee huneej, daisandaa olzlogdon,
orgon zugataaj baijee. Baga nasandaa nohoinoos ain
uildag huu hojmiin delhiig daguulsan suut hun bolson.
Amidraldaa chingis haan hoyor ih nuherlel buteesen.
Nasan bagiin unench nuherlel, ider nasnii daisan
boldon Jamuh, hojmiin ih baildan daguulagchidiig
turuulsen nasan turshiin hairt hun Burte hatnaa oljee.

Gobi, Shar murniig gatlan Hyatad gurniig baildan
daguulj, TUrk, Persiig ezelsen. CHingis haanii
baildaanii shildeg urlagiig ezemshin, hund zevsegt
daisnaa hungen zevseg, hurd hucheer amarhan diilj
bailaa. CHingis haan uuriin humuust baildah urlagiig
zaahiin hajuugaar ezelsen gazar nutgaa uyes ueyed,
olon zuunaar, gurvan uyedee udirdan zalah erdmiig
zaajee.
25 han jild Romiin huchirheg gurnii 400 jild ezelsen
gazar nutgaas ch iluu nutag, gurniig ezeljee. Niit
ezelsen ulsiin too, ezelsen gazat nutgiiin hemjee,
niit hun amiin toogoor delhiin tuuhend garsan busad
baildan daguulagchidaas darui hoyor dahin ih bailaa.
Mongol moriton baatruud  morin tuurai hureh gazar,
Nomhon dalain huveenees Gazariin dundad tengis hurtelh
nutgiin usaar moridoo usalj baijee.
Orgil uyedee, Mongoliin ih guren 11-12 saya havtgai
durveljin gazar nutgiig ezelj, Afrik tivees iluu gazar
nutag, Hoit Americ, Canad, Meksic, Kariviin ornuudiig
niiluulsnees ch iluu asar uudam nutgiig ezelj orshjee.

Sibiriin huiten taigaas, Enethegiin haluun bus,
Vietnamiin tsagaan budaat nutgaas Ungariin tarian
talbai, Solongosoos Balkan hurtel telen orshij baijee.

(P.S. Garahdaa ch uhehdee ch ter emeeleesee
hovhordoggui gandan buurahgui huchtei zuun myangahan
moriton) orchin uyeiin gazriin zurgaar bol 30 ulsiig
bagtaasan, 3 terbumiig baildan daguulj chadjee.
13-r zuund CHingis haan delhiin gazriin zurgiig ahin
shineer buteelgesen. Tuunii urlan buteeh uhaan ni had
chuluund bus undestendee orshij baiv.
Mongolchuud Zuun Europiin olon tarhai jijig ulsiidiig,
Oros orniig negen tsul guren bolgon negtgej, zUun Azid
gurvan uyeiin turshid Hyatad gurniig negtgen, udirdan
zalj ih guren baiguulsan.
CHingis haanii Mongoliin ih guren olon irgenshsen
soyolt ulsuudiig negtgen argamjsan. 1162 ond Temuujin
tureh uyed ene olon soyolt ulsuud hursh zergeldee
ulsaa medehgui shahuu bailaa. Hyatadiin tuhai Europ
medehgui, Europiin tuhai Hyatad sonsoogui bailaa. 1227
CHingis haan nasan boloh 65 han jild edgeer uls
gurnuud uur hoorondoo diplomat arga, hudaldaa
naimaagaar salahiin argagui holbogdson bailaa.
Tereer hudaldaanii tatvariig bagasgan, emch, bagsh,
murgelch, bolovsrold zoriulj baiv. CHingis haan ene
olon ulsad zoriulsan negdmel hudaldaanii chuleet
busiig uusgen, too burtgeliin huuli, olon ulsiin
shuudangiin systemiig anh udaa bii bolgojee. CHingis
haan bayan tansag amidaral, ed hurenged shunalgui, uls
gurnii amgalang erhemlen, ard tumend bayalagiig taraaj
baijee. Chingis haan munh tengeriin huchin dor negdsen
negen huuliar olon ulsiiin huuliig bii bolgoson. Ter
tsagt Chingis haanii huuli ihenh uls gurnii
zahiargchaas avaad engiin honichind uilchilj baijee.
Uunii tuld olon urvagch, deeremching ustgaj baiv.
Tereer shashnii erh chuleeg erhemlen, olon undesteng
negtej chadjee. CHingis haan baritsaand avahaas
tatgalzan, tuunii orond diplomat yosiig erhemlen
turiin altan argamjaar gurnee enh amgalan bailgaj
baiv. CHingis haanii Mongoliin ih gurnen 150 jiliin
tursh tsetseglen hugjsen. Tsag hugatsaanii erheer ih
guren olon huvaagdsan ch hojmiin ur udam ni,
jisheelehed Moguliin haant uls Enethegiig 1857 hurtel
zahirch baiva. Angliin huchin irj suulchiin haan
Bahadur (baatar)Shah (haan) II, tuunii hoyor huu,
achiin hamt tolgoig taslah alsnaar Moguliin uls buren
muhjee. CHingis haanii udamiin Alim khanii uls,
(Buhariin ezen) Uzbekstanid Orosiin huvisgal (1920)
hurtel orshijee.
Tuuh bol olonh augaa ih humuusiin uhleer, duuren. 33
nasandaa Ih Alexander haan Babylond aluulj, tuunii
hureelegchid ni ger buliig ni ustgajee. Juli Zesar
zaluugaaraa Romiin senat nart horlogdon uhej, Napoleon
Bonapart ih baildan daguulaliinhaa daraa gantsaardan
uhej bailaa. Harin barag 70 nastai CHingis haan uuriin
hairt humuuseeree hureeluulen aldar suutaigaa hamt
amgalan munhed noirsson. Plani Di Carpini tuuniig
ayangand nirguulj nasan uud bolson gej, CHingis haanii
ach huu Huvalain Mongoliin ih Yuan hurend ailchilsan
Marco Polo nomondoo CHingis haaniig sharhnaas bolj,
zarim eh survalj tuuniig horlogdson gej bichjee. Uur
negen domog bol Tangudiin haanii id shidiin hucheer
uhsen geh medee bii. Bas uur neg ni Tangudiin
olzlogdson hatan tuuniig horloson gejee.
Bor gert turen yertentsiig baildan daguulsan CHingis
haaniig bas haan gertee nasan uud bolson gedeg.
Ih Chingis haaniig nasan uud bolsnii daraa tuunii
ariun shariliig tursen nutagt ni zaljee.
(P.S. ISgelen myangan agtnii tuvergeend noirssoon
CHingis haan,Ingen temee uiluulsan Haldashgui ongon
Deluun boldog)
CHingis haan magadgui delhiin tuuhen deh baildan
daguulagch naraas hamgiin olon guuriig buteesen hun.
Mongolchuud tarhsan gazar nutagtaa hudaldaa ariljaag
neehiin satsuu shine sanaa medlegiig delgeruulj
yavjee. Mongolchuud German uurhaichinf Hyatadad,
Hyatad emchiig Persed avaachsan uls. Parisaas
Mongoliin huurai tald barilga bariulahaar tumerchin
avchirch, Angli yazguurtang gegeeruleh uild yavuulj,
Hyatad huruunii heeg Persed uldeelgej chadsan.
Mongolchuud Hyatadad CHristiin sum barihiig
sanhuujuulj, Buddist sumiig Persid, Muslim Koran
sumiiig Orost bariuljee. Dariig buteen, uher buu
hiijee. CHingis haanii ach huu Hubilai tsaasan mungiig
anh delhiid gargaj, buh huuhded undsen bolovsrol olgoh
anhan shatnii surguuliudiig baiguulsan. Mongolchuud 10
myangan jiliin tsag toonii bichgiig gargan mash unetei
gazriin zurgiig uildsen. Europiin haad, Romiin Poptoi
Mongoliin ih guren haritsaj bailaa. SHine technologi,
medleg, sanaa, hudaldaanii huchin chadal ni Europiin
sergen mandaliig avchirsan. Mongolchuudaas damjin orj
irsen shinechleiin achaar nom hevleh bolomj burden
Angli heleer bichsen anhnii zohiol Geoffrey -n
Canterbury tale buyu Mongolin CHingis haanii tuhai nom
1395 ond hevlegdsen.
 

Чингис хаан ба өнөө цагийн дэлхийг бүтээхүй номын зохиогч
Баянмонголоос зохион явуулж байгаа Миний эх орон уралдаанд зориулан Америкийн эрдэмтэн, монгол судлаач, Чингис хаан ба өнөө цагийн дэлхийг бүтээхүй номын зохиогч
Жаак Вийдэрфоордоос
захиа ирүүлсэнийг уламжиляа.
 
Эрхэм хүндэт Монголчууд аа,

Их Монгол улсын
Эзэн Чингис хааны үрс
Ирээдүй үеийнхэн та нартаа
Энэхүү номоо зориулан бичсэн юм шүү.

Өсвөрийн монгол залуусаа
Өдөр бүр би
Зүрх сэтгэлийн гүндээ
Өглөө бүр би
Оюун бодолдоо тээж
Энэхүү номоо зориулан бичсэн юм шүү

Өчнөөн түүхтэй монголд
Өнөө цагийн дэлхий
Өчүүхэн багыг өгсөн ч гэлээ
Өвөг дээдэс монголчууд тань
Өнөө цагийн дэлхийд
Өгөөмөр ихийг бүтээсэн юм

Хүн төрөлхтний түүхэнд
Хамаг олон монголчууд
Хаан эзэн Чингисийн
Хүртээж оруулсан хувь нэмрийг
Хол нутгийн хүмүн би бээр
Хүндлэн дээдэлж явдагаа
Хүлцэж бас уламжиляа

Алдарт эзэн Чингис хааныхаа
Амьдрал сургаалаас суран судалж
Алтан үсэгтэй монгол бичгээ
Амилуулан цэцэглүүлж сураарай гэж
Аминчилан та нартаа захих байна.

Хаанаас ч эрээд олдошгүй
Хосгүй хоёр бэлэг
Хамаг Монгол улс
Худам монгол бичгийг
Хаан эзэн Чингис тань
Хурааж та нарт үлдээсэн юм.

Өсвөрийн монгол залуус минь
Өрлөг сайхан түүхээсээ
Өмөг түшигт хаанаасаа
Үргэлж суралцаж яваарай.

Эх болсон монгол хэл бичиг
Эргэж дурсах эрхэм түүхээ
Энэ монголын залуус та нарт
Эрслэн тэмцэж өвлүүлж чадсан
Эрдэмт багш ард түмнээ
Эрхэмлэм хүндэлж санаж яваарай
 
Мөнх хөх тэнгэрийн
Алтан нарны гэгээ
Үзэсгэлэнт ногоон байгальт
Монголын сайхан орныг
Мөнхөд ивээх болтугай

2008.12.02
Жаак Вийдэрфорд
Jack Weatherford
 

2008.12.02

Жаак Вийдэрфорд

Dear Contestants,

         I wrote this book for you, who are the young people of the Great Mongol nation and therefore you are the children of Chinggis Khaan.  Everyday you were in my heart and in my mind as I wrote this book. 
         Your ancestors gave much to the world, but sadly the world  gave little to Mongolia.  As an American I wish to show my great respect for Chinggis Khaan and for the contributions of Mongolians to the world.  I hope that you will study the life and words of Chinggis Khaan and that, in particular, you will learn and cherish the Mongol script. 
           Chinggis Khaan gave you two great gifts.  He gave you the Great Mongol Nation, and he gave you the Mongol script.  I hope that you will always study and learn from him and that you will honor your Mongolian scholars and teachers who have kept his memory and his script alive for you. 
     
        May the Golden Light of the Eternal Blue Sky forever bless the beautiful green land of Mongolia!
:
Jack Weatherford
 

Америкийн эрдэмтэн, монгол судлаач
Жаак Вийдэрфоорд
Чингис хаан ба өнөө цагийн дэлхийг бүтээхуй
Номын удиртгалаас

Монголын залуу үеийхэнд захих ину:

Амин Монголийн арвин түүхийг
Алс хойчдоо хамгаалан үлдээхээр
Алтан амиа дураар золиослосон
Аугаа сэтгэлт ухаант мэргэдээ
Амид яваа энэхэн насандаа
Алдарч хэзээ ч бүү мартаарай.

 
  Urgeljel 3-r heseg

CHingis haanii tuhai mash olon yanziin medeellees bid
tuunii amidraliin talaar bichsengui uldlee. Ali ch
baildan daguulagchtai adil bus tereer uuriin zurag
hurgiig uldeesengui. CHingis haan hezee ch uuniig
zuvsheereegui  aj. CHingis haanii dur turh negent
uldeegui bolohoor delhii uneeder zuvhen tuseelj baina.
Nasan uud bolsnoos hoish buten hagas zuun ungerehed
olon soyol irgenshilt tumen olon yanzaar zursan.
Hyataduud huchirheg baatar eriin duriig bus hugshin
hunii dureer, Persuud CHingis haaniig Turkiin sultan
adilaar, Europuud hargis buduuleg dureer uursdiin
undesten bolgon zurj uldeesen. Mongoliin buuts uund
baigaa buyu.) Tuuh zohiogchid, tuuhchid Chingis haanii
baildan daguulaliin tuhai on saraar bichihees tuunii
undsen mun chanar, zan aash, huviin amidraliig
bichsengui. Nuuts buhnee uldeen nuuts heveeree uldjee.
Hyatad, Pers tuuhchid domgiin chanartai eh survalj
ashiglan harin uye zalgamjilsan Mongoliin Ezent gurnii
uyed tuuhee bichihiig hicheejee. Rasihd Al Din
bichihdee ene buhen gadnii nuleenees hamgaalsan
nuugdmal zuil gejee. Tuuniig mash olon yanzaar
tuseelen olon hureg zurag zursan. Solongosoos  Armen
hurte, ted  CHingis haanii tuhai olon ulger domog
zohioson. Nuugdmal bodit tuuhees gaduur tuuniig hargis
alan hyadagchaar l tuseelj baijee.
CHingis haanii tuhai, Mongol neriig hurtel olon
yanzaar tuuhiiin uneniig saarmagjuulahaar bichij baiv.
19-r zuund hamgiin muuhai uvchiig Mongoliod hemeen
zarlaj Mongolchuudiig doromjilih bolson. Orosuud
huchirheg boltoloo udsan ni, Japanii tsergiin huchin
ustelee udsan ni, Persuud hursh orondoo diildej baisan
ni yerdee Mongolchuudiin hiisen baildan daguulal
bailaa. Enetheg Britanii coloniig eserguutseh
chadvargui bailaa.
 Arabiin uls turchid helehdee atomiin bumbegiig
Americaas uridan arabuud hiih baisan. Hervee
Mongolchuud Arabiin nom sudar, hotiig ustgaagui bol..
2002 ond Afganid Americiin huchin orohod Taliban
tserguud Americiin tserguudiig Mongolchuudtai adiltgan
helsen. 8 zuunii turshid Afganid suurishsan Mongoliin
ur udam Hazaruudiig olnoor yargalan alsan ni uuntei
holbootoi. Saddam Hussein helehdee Americuud negen
turliin Mongol gej helsen. 
CHingis haanii turelh nutag Mongol 20-r zuund
communismiin nuleen dor delhiin ulsaas angid bailaa.
Mongoliin tuuhiiin undsen barimt bichig Mongoliiin
Nuuts Tovchoo mongol heleer uldeegui tudiigui oldoogui
ni CHingis haanii ongoniig haihtai adil nuuts heveeree
uldsen.
20-r zuund 2 tom ahits garsan ni CHingis haanii unen
tuuhiin barimtuud ilersen yavdal. Beejingiin nomiin
sangaas negen erdemten sudlaach nuutsaar hulgailan
hyatadaar bichsen huulbar Nuuts Tovchoog delhiid
delgesen. Gevch ene ni turelh mongo heleer bus hytad
huvilbar baisan. Iinhuu ungersen zuunii eheer
Mongoliin nuuts tovchoo Mongoliin nuuts tuuh delhiid
ergen irsen. 1953 Stalin nas barj, 1961 ond Mongol uls
Negdsen Undestnii baiguullagiin buren erht oron
bolsnoor Mongoliin tuuhiin talaar tsuvral medeelleiig
ard tumend gargaj ehleheer bolson. 1962 on buyu
CHingis haani mendelsen 800 jiliin oig temdeglen
Tumer-Ochir, zasgiin gazriin hoyordahi erh medel buhii
hun CHingis haanii tursen nutag Onon goliin derged
erdemtediin chuulgan huralduulsan. Mark, CHingis
haanii husheeg bosgon, CHingis haanii alga bolson har
suldiig husheend munheljee. 800 zuunii daraa hurtel
CHingisiin har suldet tug oyun sanaanii gun utga
chanaraa hadgalsaar bailaa. Oros, Hyatad guren
Mongoliin nuleen dor orsshon tuuhee niited delgehguin
tuld tuuniig haaj bailaa. Tiinhuu Tumer-Ochiriig
alban tushaalaas ni huuj, nutag zaan, hojim busdiin
gart zerlegeer sejigteigeer amia aldsan. Chingis haan,
tuuhiiin talaar duugarsan hen buhniig shiitgej shorond
horij bailaa. Tumer-OChiriin basgsh baisan buruutnaar
Hudeegiin Perlee shorond orj, olon seheetnuud ajilgui
bolj nutag zaagdsan. Ted emnelgiin tuslamj avah , ajil
turel hiih erhgui bolon shiitgegdsen.
Enehuu 800 jilin oin tsag muchid CHingis haanii har
suldet tsug ahin uzegdeegui.
Harin gadaad uls ornuud Oros, German, Frants, Ungar
ulsuud Nuuts tovchoog hurvuulen orchuulj eheljee.
Mongoliin tuhai unen  bodit medeelelguigeer, eh
survaljguigeer sudalgaa hundreltei uchirch baiv, 1970
ond Mongol angliar hevlegden garlaa. Tuuhiin aguulga,
ner us zuin utga, gazarzuin tomyololuud turelh nutagt
ni ochin sudlahaas naash tuuhiin unen barimt bolohgui
bailaa.
20-r zuund garsan hoyordahi tom ololt ni 1990 ond
garsan. Communiszmiin nuleenees garch Mongol uls Aziin
 gund anhnii ardchilaliig baiguulj, delhiin busad
orond uud neelttei bolson. Iinhuu ene uyes gadaadiin
erdemted CHingis haanii turelh nutagt ni sudalgaa hiih
buren bolomj neegdsen.
Minii (Jack Weatherford) sudalgaa Hyatad, Dundad Azi,
Europiig holboson Torgonii zam, delhiin hudaldaanii
tuuhen deh nuudelchin ard tumnii tuuhiin uureg roliig
sudlah zorilgotoi biasan. Beejingees avaad Tuv Azi,
Turk hurtel tuuhen hotuud, nomiin sanguud, tuuhch
erdemtedtei uulzaj yavlaa. 1990 onii eheer l Sibiriin
mongol gazar nutag Buriat ulsad anh ochloo. Tuuhiiin
zamaar mushgen Oros, Hyatad, Mongol, Uzbekstan,
Kazakstan, Tasikstan, Kyrgizstan, TUrkmenstanaar
ayalsan. Mongol gazar nutgaas tasran garsan Turkiin
ertnii nuudliin zamaar mushgej bailaa. Daraa ni Marco
Pologiin uldeesen Umned Hyatadaas Vietnam hureh
zamaar, Malacca-s Enetgheg, Arabiin uls, Venezed
ochson.
Enenhuu olon ayalal asar ih medeelel ugsen  hedii ch
minii bodsonoor aria uur bailaa. Minii az tushsen
enehuu urt udaan hugatsaanii ayalal sudalgaa maani
1998 ond Mongold irsneer erliin suuliin buteeldee orno
bolno gej bodson. Chingis haanii zaluu nasaa
ungeruulsen nutagt hiih sudalgaa maani tiim ch udaan
urgeljilehgui gej tootsoj bailaa. Gevch ene ayalal
maani ahin buten tavan jileer urtsaj, minii
tuseelsnees iluu ur duntei bailaa. Mongolchuudiig ezen
haanaa gun hundetgedeg, erh chuleet uls bolohiig
medersen. CHingis haanii ner yum buhen deer aldarshij
bailaa. Gevcj ene hun hen be?
Mongoliin erdemten nuhed, zaluustai nuherlen bidnii
hamtarsan buteel ehelsen. Bid CHingis haanii ongoniig
olohoor haisan.
Buten uder morior 50 mile yavahdaa modon emeel, mongol
deel, busnii uchiriig oilgoson. Halaasandaa hadgalsan
hatuu aaruuliin chuhaliig  oilgoson.
 
  N=4 Tugsgeliin buleg
CHingis haani munhiin ariun dogshin suns

Eh tuuhee martsan ni ta bidnii buruu yu? SInger Jargalsaihan.D

Gengis haanii Mongoliin ih guren  delhiin tuuhen deh
nuudelchin ard tumnii buteesen hamgiin suulchiin
hamgiin tom guren bailaa. CHIngis haan nuudelchin,
suurishimal ard tumnii hoorondoh dain baildaanii 10
myangan jiliiin udam zalgamjilj baisan.  ROmiin ezent
gurniig unagaasan Hun nariiin adail buural tuuh.
Genghis anh orchin uyeiin delhiin hudaldaa ariljaa,
hariltsaa holboo,  negdmel ahuig uldeesen. Ter hun
humuusiin sain saihnii tulee shine zuiliig buteej
baisan. Mongoliin armi delhiin gantsaarchilsan soyol
irgenshiliig muheen negdmel soyoliig avchirsan. Heden
zuunii umne CHingis haan halisan ch gelee CHinigs
haani sur javhlan odoo bidnii uyed sonsogdoj baina.
2000 onii 4 sard Temuujin, tuunii ger buliin humuusiin
gargasan 800 jiliin umneh nuuts zamaar ayalj yavlaa.
Temuujingiin nasnii morind eremgii, tashaa urgen
bustei mongol deeltei, malchin mongol huvguud heden
zuunii umneh turheeree  bidnii hajuud bailaa.  Bid
Temuujingiin 9 shargiin adil 9 moritoi yavsan.
Mongolchuud nuudelchin mongol turheeree, zun bilgeeree
gol gatlah guyehen gazriig, tsasnii nimgeniig medej
chadna.
CHingis haan delhii yertentsed asar ih zuiliig
uurchilj chadsan. Harin Chingis haan tursen gazar
shoroondoo yug ch uurchilehiig zuvsheereegui egel
turheer ni hadgalsan. Nudee anih horomdoo  Hyatad,
Enetheg, Europ hursen mongol moridiin   uurseeg odoo
ch bi sonsoh met boldog. Arhiniii deejees baigali
delhiidee gurvantaa urgeh yosiig bi medersen.

Chingis haanii Mongol undesten odoog hurtel orshsoor,
Nadad tuslahaar irsen hen buhend talarhalaa herhen
ilerhiilehee bi medehgui. Sarlag unaad bidend us
duhuulj ugch bui jaahan ohiniig, uur negen uder nadad
jims aaruul avchirch hen negen, negen saihan uder
nadad shine angiin mah avchirch ugeh zaluu anchin huug
bi yaj martaj chadah bilee. Malchid uursdiin oron
gertee tuhtai bailgahiin hajuugaar idée budaagaar
dailj, hen negen ni nadad unah mori, ideh honi
avchirch  ugch baisan. Hugshin buural mori unaad
yavahiig ni haraad, 4 saihan zaluu bidniig chonotoi
gazraas hamgaalan tusalj baisan. Ted nadad angiin
ever, jijighen modon mori, honi yamaa, beleglesen. Buu
udganuud bidend amjilt yereej, lam nar arts hujeer san
tavij bidend tusalj baisan. Zarim humuus jijighen
chuluu ch beleglej dursan yavahiig belegsheen bailaa.
Ene buh setgeliin belgiin hariug bi hezee ch tulj
diilehgui. Mongol duu gedeg hamgiin saihan beleg
bailaa. Hen negen duulahad ni minii uram sergej
yavlaa. Urt udriiin ayand aljaasan biye setgeliig
jaahan ohinii miniii umne zogson bishuurheh atlaa
yaruuhnaar duulah ayalguu sergeej baisan. Morin huur,
amitanii ayalguug duurian, mori yantsgaah ene saihan
hugjim, tal shigee saihan urtiin  duu ene buhniig bi
martaj chadahgui. Mongoliin aldart duuchiin
Norovbanzadiin ayalguu, Chingis haanii Jargalsaihan,
delhiin shildeg hugjmiin zohiolch Jantsannoroviin
ayalguu ene buhniig bi martaj chadahgui.
Hezee negen tsagt bi gergiin hamt, ur achiiinhaa hamt
CHingis haanii tal nutgaar ayalan yavah udree huleen
suuna. Beltgesen daanjuur@yahoo.com
 
  The Spirit Banner of Genghis Khan

IN 1937, THE SOUL of Genghis Khan disappeared from the Buddhist monastery in central Mongolia along the River of the Moon below the black Shankh Mountains where the faithful lamas had protected and venerated it for centuries. During the 1930’s, Stalin’s henchmen executed some thirty thousand Mongols in a series of campaigns against their culture and religion. The troops ravaged one monastery after another, shot the monks, assaulted the nuns, broke the religious objects, looted the libraries, burned the scriptures, and demolished the temples. Reportedly, someone secretly rescued the embodiment of Genghis Khan’s soul from the Shankh Monastery and whisked it away for safekeeping to the capital in Ulaanbaatar, where it ultimately disappeared.

Through the centuries on the rolling, grassy steppes of inner Asia, a warrior-herder carried a Spirit Banner, called a sulde, constructed by tying strands of hair from his best stallions to the shaft of a spear, just below its blade. Whenever he erected his camp, the warrior planted the Spirit Banner outside the entrance to proclaim his identity and to stand as his perpetual guardian. The Spirit Banner always remained in the open air beneath the Eternal Blue Sky that the Mongols worshiped. As the strands of hair blew and tossed in the nearly constant breeze of the steppe, they captured the power of the wind, the sky, and the sun, and the banner channeled this power from nature to the warrior. The wind in the horsehair inspired the warrior’s dreams and encouraged him to pursue his own destiny. The streaming and twisting of the horsehair in the wind beckoned the owner ever onward, luring him away from this spot to seek another, to find better pasture, to explore new opportunities and adventures, to create his own fate in his life in this world. The union between the man and his Spirit Banner grew so intertwined that when he died, the warrior’s spirit was said to reside forever in those tufts of horsehair. While the warrior lived, the horsehair banner carried his destiny; in death, it became his soul. The physical body was quickly abandoned to nature, but the soul lived on forever in those tufts of horsehair to inspire future generations.

Genghis Khan had one banner made from white horses to use in peacetime and one made from black horses for guidance in war. The white one disappeared early in history, but the black one survived as the repository of his soul. In the centuries after his death, the Mongol people continued to honor the banner where his soul resided. In the sixteenth century, one of his descendants, the lama Zanabazar, built the monastery with a special mission to fly and protect his banner. Through storms and blizzards, invasions and civil wars, more than a thousand monks of the Yellow Hat sect of Tibetan Buddhism guarded the great banner, but they proved no match for the totalitarian politics of the twentieth century. The monks were killed, and the Spirit Banner disappeared.

Fate did not hand Genghis Khan his destiny; he made it for himself. It seemed highly unlikely that he would ever have enough horses to create a Spirit Banner, much less that he might follow it across the world. The boy who became Genghis Khan grew up in a world of excessive tribal violence, including murder, kidnapping, and enslavement. As the son in an outcast family left to die on the steppes, he probably encountered no more than a few hundred people in his entire childhood, and he received no formal education. From this harsh setting, he learned, in dreadful detail, the full range of human emotion: desire, ambition, and cruelty. While still a child he killed his older half brother, was captured and enslaved by a rival clan, and managed to escape from his captors.

Under such horrific conditions, the boy showed an instinct for survival
and self-preservation, but he showed little promise of the achievements he would one day make. As a child, he feared dogs and he cried easily. His younger brother was stronger than he was and a better archer and wrestler; his half brother bossed him around and picked on him. Yet from these degraded circumstances of hunger, humiliation, kidnapping, and slavery, he began the long climb to power. Before reaching puberty, he had already formed the two most important relationships of his life. He swore eternal friendship and allegiance to a slightly older boy who became the closest friend of his youth but turned into the most dedicated enemy of his adulthood, and he found the girl whom he would love forever and whom he made the mother of emperors. The dual capacity for friendship and enmity forged in Genghis Khan’s youth endured throughout his life and became the defining trait of his character. The tormenting questions of love and paternity that arose beneath a shared blanket or in the flickering firelight of the family hearth became projected onto the larger stage of world history. His personal goals, desires, and fears engulfed the world.

Year by year, he gradually defeated everyone more powerful than he was, until he had conquered every tribe on the Mongolian steppe. At the age of fifty, when most great conquerors had already put their fighting days behind them, Genghis Khan’s Spirit Banner beckoned him out of his remote homeland to confront the armies of the civilized people who had harassed and enslaved the nomadic tribes for centuries. In the remaining years of life, he followed that Spirit Banner to repeated victory across the Gobi and the Yellow River into the kingdoms of China, through the central Asian lands of the Turks and the Persians, and across the mountains of Afghanistan to the Indus River.

In conquest after conquest, the Mongol army transformed warfare into an intercontinental affair fought on multiple fronts stretching across thousands of miles. Genghis Khan’s innovative fighting techniques made the heavily armored knights of medieval Europe obsolete, replacing them with disciplined cavalry moving in coordinated units. Rather than relying on defensive fortifications, he made brilliant use of speed and surprise on the battlefield, as well as perfecting siege warfare to such a degree that he ended the era of walled cities. Genghis Khan taught his people not only to fight across incredible distances but to sustain their campaign over years, decades, and, eventually, more than three generations of constant fighting.

In twenty-five years, the Mongol army subjugated more lands and people than the Romans had conquered in four hundred years. Genghis Khan, together with his sons and grandsons, conquered the most densely populated civilizations of the thirteenth century. Whether measured by the total number of people defeated, the sum of the countries annexed, or by the total area occupied, Genghis Khan conquered more than twice as much as any other man in history. The hooves of the Mongol warriors’ horses splashed in the waters of every river and lake from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. At its zenith, the empire covered between 11 and 12 million contiguous square miles, an area about the size of the African continent and considerably larger than North America, including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean combined. It stretched from the snowy tundra of Siberia to the hot plains of India, from the rice paddies of Vietnam to the wheat fields of Hungary, and from Korea to the Balkans. The majority of people today live in countries conquered by the Mongols; on the modern map, Genghis Kahn’s conquests include thirty countries with well over 3 billion people. The most astonishing aspect of this achievement is that the entire Mongol tribe under him numbered around a million, smaller than the workforce of some modern corporations. From this million, he recruited his army, which was comprised of no more than one hundred thousand warriors—a group that could comfortably fit into the larger sports stadiums of the modern era.

In American terms, the accomplishment of Genghis Khan might be understood if the United States, instead of being created by a group of educated merchants or wealthy planters, had been founded by one of its illiterate slaves, who, by the sheer force of personality, charisma, and determination, liberated America from foreign rule, united the people, created an alphabet, wrote the constitution, established universal religious freedom, invented a new system of warfare, marched an army from Canada to Brazil, and opened roads of commerce in a free-trade zone that stretched across the continents. On every level and from any perspective, the scale and scope of Genghis Khan’s accomplishments challenge the limits of imagination and tax the resources of scholarly explanation.
http://mongoliabooks.com/thespiritbannerofgenghiskhan.php

People about his book

 

 

 

ABOUT THE BOOK AND ARTICLES

The Women Who Ruled the Mongol Empire
By Jack Weatherford http://www.theglobalist.com/DBWeb/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=4601

Jack Weatherford: Our World Turned Upside Down
  http://blog.lib.umn.edu/archives/shea0017/philosophy/000871.html

Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World http://www.isidore-of-seville.com/genghis/2.html

The Spirit Banner of Genghis Khan http://mongoluls.net/books/thespiritbannerofgenghiskhan.php

Reviewed by Timothy May about his book http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.cgi?path=109181119467183

Asian review of books http://www.asianreviewofbooks.com/arb/article.php?article=382

Jack's class: The Mongols: Past and Present http://cesww.fas.harvard.edu/syll/Weatherford_Jack_2001_The_Mongols_Past_and_Present.pdf

BOOKS IN BOOKSTORES

RandomHouse http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780609610626

Book in Walmart http://www.walmart.com/catalog/product.gsp?product_id=2322236

Book in Powells http://www.powells.com/biblio?partner_id=28081&cgi=product&isbn=0609610627

The Barbarian Invasions http://citypages.com/databank/25/1220/article12060.asp

Barnes Noble bookstore http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbninquiry.asp?pwb=1&ean=9780609610626

Amazon.com http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/search-handle-url/index%3Dstripbooks%26field-author%3Djack%20weatherford%26results-process%3Ddefault%26dispatch%3Dsearch/ref%3Dpd%5Fsl%5Faw%5Ftops-1%5Fstripbooks%5F8124473%5F2/104-9794975-7435104

Buy.com http://www.buy.com/retail/product.asp?sku=39962513&SearchEngine=SSP&SearchTerm=39962513&Type=PS&Category=Book&dcaid=17282

Alibris.com http://www.alibris.com/search/search.cfm?qwork=7882324&wauth=Jack%20weatherford&matches=35&qsort=r&cm_re=works*listing*title

Bestprices.com http://www.bestprices.com/cgi-bin/vlink/0609610627BT.html

Global Business Network http://www.gbn.com/BookClubSelectionDisplayServlet.srv?si=30825

Silk Road http://www.silkroadfoundation.org/newsletter/2004vol2num1/editor.htm

Schwarzbooks.com http://www.schwartzbooks.com/cgi-bin/category.cgi?category=search&searchfields=brand&query=Jack%20Weatherford%2C%20J%2E%20McIver%20Weatherford&match=fulltext

MongoliaBooks.com http://mongoliabooks.com/genghiskhanandthemaking.php

Ecampus.com http://www.ecampus.com/bk_detail.asp?isbn=0609610627

Eunions.com Reiview http://www.epinions.com/content_175101742724


OTHERS


Mongolian Embassy http://www.mongolianembassy.us/eng_news_and_events/newsevents_may2005.php

About MOngolia http://www.lpf.com/adventure/mongolia/coordinates.html

WashingtonPost Bestsellers http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35717-2005Apr7.html

BookSmith.com Bestseller http://www.booksmith.com/bestsellers.html

New-York times Bestseller http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/24/books/bestseller/0724bestpapernonfiction.html

Interview NPR http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/X/X-G1enghisK1.asp

NPR Interview http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1791972 

Globalist http://www.theglobalist.com/DBWeb/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=4472

Nation master http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Genghis-Khan

World of Royalty http://www.royalty.nu/Asia/Mongolia.html

Mongolian Tsahimurtuu http://www.tsahimurtuu.mn/archive.php?body=1&msgid=10833

SomaReview http://www.somareview.com/genghis_khan.cfm

American Center http://www.mongoliacenter.org/steer_comm.html

Seoul Tiimes http://theseoultimes.com/ST/?url=/ST/db/read.php?idx=1915

USNEWS http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/040223/23rabban.htm

Liberty Forum http://www.libertyforum.org/showflat.php?Number=293676082

Mongolian Travel http://www.mongoliantravel.com/chingiskhan.asp

CBC radia http://www.cbc.ca/thecurrent/2005/200505/20050526.html

Indian Prime Minister, about his book http://www.macalester.edu/bulletin/details8.html

Interview http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4251/is_200403/ai_n13138002?cm_ven=Y&cm_ite=PI

Jack Weatherford, Anthropology, and his book Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, continue to attract media attention. Weatherford was interviewed on the Voice of America's daily international call-in talk show "Talk to America." The book was listed as the favorite book of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. (OutlookIndia.com India - December 17, 2004) The book is listed as the number five selection in a list of Top Adult Nonfiction Titles. (Pioneer Press - December 31, 2004) Weatherford is mentioned in an article on some of the Best Books of the Year. (Weekend Standard Hong Kong - January 1-26, 2005) http://www.macalester.edu/bulletin/details8.html